- 11 février 2021
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Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, 1870–1885. On 5 May, he was appointed commander of the Commune's whole army. In this war drama blurring the lines between documentary and fiction, the working class and the bourgeoisie of 19th century Paris are interviewed and covered on television, before and during a tragic workers' class revolt. Le 31 octobre et le 22 janvier de grandes manifestations éclatent demandant la Commune et la sortie en masse. Jourde first obtained a loan from the Rothschild Bank, then paid the bills from the city account, which was soon exhausted. He went into exile in Switzerland and died before making a single payment. Directed by Peter Watkins. Paris would pay an indemnity of 200 million francs. High religious officials had been arrested: Archbishop Darboy, the Vicar General Abbé Lagarde, and the Curé of the Madeleine Abbé Deguerry. Numerous organisations were set up during the siege in the localities (quartiers) to meet social needs, such as canteens and first-aid stations. Les troupes de Napoléon III sont défaites en septembre, il est fait prisonnier et sa déchéance est proclamée par les députés. General Vinoy ordered the army to pull back to the Seine, and Thiers began to organise a withdrawal to Versailles, where he could gather enough troops to take back Paris. The report assessed information about Communard casualties only as "very incomplete". , At the same time as the demonstration in Paris, the leaders of the Government of National Defence in Bordeaux had concluded that the war could not continue. But news of the evacuation reached the Central Committee of the National Guard and the Commune. , Another French historian, Paul Lidsky, argues that Thiers felt urged by mainstream newspapers and leading intellectuals to take decisive action against ‘the social and democratic vermin’ (Le Figaro), ‘those abominable ruffians’ (Comtesse de Ségur). Some leaders of the Commune, including Delescluze, died on the barricades, but most of the others survived and lived long afterwards, and some of them resumed political careers in France. The newly organized French armies won a single victory at Coulmiers on 10 November, but an attempt by General Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot on 29 November at Villiers to break out of Paris was defeated with a loss of 4,000 soldiers, compared with 1,700 German casualties. At the same time Cissey sent a message to Colonel Megy, with the permission of Marshal MacMahon, offering to spare the lives of the fort's defenders, and let them return to Paris with their belongings and weapons, if they surrendered the fort.  A plaque and a church, Notre-Dame-des-Otages [fr] (Our Lady of the Hostages) on rue Haxo mark the place where fifty hostages, including priests, gendarmes and four civilians, were shot by a firing squad.. They have taken over all the city halls, all the public establishments, they’re pillaging the munitions and the food supplies. 51 000 obus prussiens seront ramassés après l'offensive dans les forts de Rosny et Noisy. " The Bolsheviks renamed their dreadnought battleship Sevastopol to Parizhskaya Kommuna. " Following the 1871 Paris Commune, the anarchist movement, as was the whole of the workers' movement, was decapitated and deeply affected for years.  Earlier that day, dressed in civilian clothes, he had been trying to find out what was going on, when he was recognized by a soldier and arrested, and brought to the building at Rue des Rosiers. The rest of the Louvre was saved by the efforts of the museum curators and fire brigades. In upper-class neighborhoods many abstained from voting: 77 percent of voters in the 7th and 8th arrondissements; 68 percent in the 15th, 66 percent in the 16th, and 62 percent in the 6th and 9th. They advanced on the morning of 3 April—without cavalry to protect the flanks, without artillery, without stores of food and ammunition, and without ambulances—confident of rapid success. He was considered to be the candidate most likely to bring peace and to restore order. Paris. Ferré was sentenced to death, and Courbet was sentenced to six months in prison, and later ordered to pay the cost of rebuilding the column. He reported to the Government that there was no alternative to negotiating an armistice. Un aérostat du siège de Paris, passant au-dessus d'un camp prussien. On September 4, the deposition of the Emperor is pronounced, and the Third Republic proclaimed. Vacherot persisted, "It was General Appert who gave me that information. The hands of captured prisoners were examined to see if they had fired weapons. The attack was first launched on the morning of 2 April by five battalions who crossed the Seine at the Pont de Neuilly. The Assembly also refused to prolong the moratorium on debt collections imposed during the war; and suspended two radical newspapers, Le Cri du Peuple of Jules Valles and Le Mot d'Ordre of Henri Rochefort, which further inflamed Parisian radical opinion. The Charles Deering McCormick Library of Special Collections at Northwestern University Library is home to one of the premier collections of original source materials on the Siege and Commune of Paris (ca. Ces globes ressemblaient à des bulles d'eau et étaient suffisamment petites pour passer à travers les mailles des filets. Delescluze and the remaining leaders of the Commune, about 20 in all, were at the city hall of the 13th arrondissement on Place Voltaire. The Siege of Paris and the Paris Commune - 1870. La décision est remise au lendemain. They included "Louise Michel, the Reclus brothers, and Eugène Varlin (the latter executed in the repression afterwards). They decided to launch an offensive against the Army in Versailles within five days. ), 1871: falons pour une histoire de la Commune de Paris (Paris, 1973), pp. , During the course of the 25th the insurgents lost the city hall of the 13th arrondissement and moved to a barricade on Place Jeanne-d'Arc, where 700 were taken prisoner. , Socialist movements, such as the First International, had been growing in influence with hundreds of societies affiliated to it across France.  The Russian Anne Jaclard, who declined to marry Dostoyevsky and finally became the wife of Blanquist activist Victor Jaclard, founded the newspaper Paris Commune with André Léo. Dans Paris, des ateliers d'armements sont installés, comme dans le palais du Louvre par exemple. With very rare exceptions, everybody seemed to me only fit for the strait-jacket. The final offensive on Paris by MacMahon's army began early in the morning on Sunday, 21 May. As the Germans surrounded the city, radical groups saw that the Government of National Defence had few soldiers to defend itself, and launched the first demonstrations against it. Trials were held for 15,895 prisoners, of whom 13,500 were found guilty. One of the first measures passed declared that military conscription was abolished, that no military force other than the National Guard could be formed or introduced into the capital, and that all healthy male citizens were members of the National Guard. It had such a profound effect on Karl Marx that he amended a portion of his "Communist Manifesto" in response to it. Thiers is premeditated thoughtlessness." He worked rapidly to assemble a new and reliable regular army. Between 300 and 600 shells hit the centre of the city every day. The Versailles government, in turn, imposed strict censorship and prohibited any publication in favour of the Commune. On 5 October, 5,000 protesters marched from Belleville to the Hotel de Ville, demanding immediate municipal elections and rifles. However, this page is dedicated to the 1871 historical period Commune de Paris, hereafter called Commune for the sake of simplicity. As he put it , "the exile of so many extremists enabled the new Republic to [...] develop in a peaceful and orderly fashion. In September and October Adolphe Thiers, the leader of the National Assembly conservatives, had toured Europe, consulting with the foreign ministers of Britain, Russia, and Austria, and found that none of them were willing to support France against the Germans. MacMahon immediately gave orders, and two battalions passed through the fortifications without meeting anyone, and occupied the Porte de Saint-Cloud and the Porte de Versailles. In the morning the regular army captured La Roquette prison and freed the remaining 170 hostages. On the morning of 22 May, the regular army occupied a large area from the Porte Dauphine; to the Champs-de-Mars and the École Militaire, where general Cissey established his headquarters; to the Porte de Vanves. remission of rents owed for the entire period of the siege (during which payment had been suspended); granting of pensions to the unmarried companions and children of national guardsmen killed in active service; free return by pawnshops of all workmen's tools and household items, valued up to 20 francs, pledged during the siege; postponement of commercial debt obligations, and the abolition of interest on the debts; prohibition of fines imposed by employers on their workmen. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. , During the war and the siege of Paris, various members of the middle- and upper-classes departed the city; at the same time there was an influx of refugees from parts of France occupied by the Germans. Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune had significant influence on the ideas of Karl Marx, who described it as the first example of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. Includes a list of balloons that left Paris, keyed to a map of their descents. It was voted on 12 April by the executive committee of the Commune, which declared that the column was "a monument of barbarism" and a "symbol of brute force and false pride." The governor of the prison, M. François, refused to give up the Archbishop without a specific order from the Commune. On 26 March the new Parisian authorities conduct elections, electing a Commune of ninety members. On the afternoon of 18 March, following the government's failed attempt to seize the cannons at Montmartre, the Central Committee of the National Guard ordered the three battalions to seize the Hôtel de Ville, where they believed the government was located. National guardsmen in the crowd opened fire along with the firing squad.  The issue of casualties during the Bloody Week arose at a National Assembly hearing on 28 August 1871, when Marshal MacMahon testified. At the news that the government had failed to have the cannons seized he wrote in his diary, "He touched off the fuse to the powder keg. Its exterminators, history has already nailed to that eternal pillory from which all of the prayers of their priest will not avail to redeem them.". In December temperatures dropped to −15 °C (5 °F), and the Seine froze for three weeks. By 30 March, less than two weeks after the Army's Montmartre rout, it began skirmishing with the National Guard on the outskirts of Paris. La Commune de Paris est une période insurrectionnelle de l'histoire de Paris qui dura un peu plus de deux mois, du 18 mars 1871 à la « Semaine sanglante » du 21 au 28 mai 1871. " Soon after the Commune began, Gustave Flaubert wrote to Sand, "Austria did not go into Revolution after Sadowa, nor Italy after Novara, nor Russia after Sebastopol! One officer of the Versailles army, a surgeon from the medical corps, was killed; the National Guardsmen had mistaken his uniform for that of a gendarme. 1870–71 (contrasts).jpg 1,229 × 1,887; 1.05 MB B21496626 0005 0636 Les merveilles de la science Inventions scientifiques dupuis 1870 Supplément au aérostats. A bitter battle took place between about 1,500 national guardsmen from the 13th arrondissement and the Mouffetard district, commanded by Walery Wroblewski, a Polish exile who had participated in the uprising against the Russians, against three brigades commanded by General de Cissey. Little resistance was encountered in the west of Paris, but the army moved forward slowly and cautiously, in no hurry. In the end, the Council had just 60 members. Le génie militaire, l'artillerie, et le ministère des Travaux publics, auxiliaire du génie et de l'artillerie, y ont concouru. Others were sent from military units in all of the provinces. Perhaps he meant both dead and wounded." The old society has twenty years of peace before it...", On 23 April, George Sand, an ardent republican who had taken part in the 1848 revolution, wrote "The horrible adventure continues. I come from Paris, and I do not know whom to speak to. Some women organised a feminist movement, following earlier attempts in 1789 and 1848. Of the 270 condemned to death—175 in their absence—25 were shot, including Ferré and Gustave Genton, who had selected the hostages for execution. Avec la capitulation de Sedan, les armées prussiennes et leurs alliés déferlent sur le Nord de la France et vont mettre le siège devant Paris. On 2 September 1870, France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War, and Emperor Napoleon III was captured.  ", Theodore Zeldin in France 1848-1945, vol.I goes so far as to say that Thiers deliberately ordered Paris to be evacuated in order to incite part of the population to rise up and eventually have a pretext for crushing Paris as a rebellious force.. Lenin, like Marx, considered the Commune a living example of the "dictatorship of the proletariat". With Eliane Annie Adalto, Pierre Barbieux, Bernard Bombeau, Maylis Bouffartigue. Soon after the Paris Commune took power in Paris, revolutionary and socialist groups in several other French cities tried to establish their own communes. Several of the other Commune leaders, including Brunel, were wounded, and Pyat had disappeared. Believing that their struggle against patriarchy could only be pursued through a global struggle against capitalism, the association demanded gender and wage equality, the right of divorce for women, the right to secular education, and professional education for girls. Clemenceau, a friend of several revolutionaries, tried to negotiate a compromise; some cannons would remain in Paris and the rest go to the army. Commune de Paris (1871): Costumes militaires de la Commune d'après nature par A. Raffet. When the Thiers government left Paris in March, they did not have the time or the reliable soldiers to take the money with them. MacMahon had his headquarters at the Quai d'Orsay. However, this page is dedicated to the 1871 historical period Commune de Paris, hereafter called Commune for the sake of simplicity. The defenders resisted until the night of 7–8 May, when the remaining national guardsmen in the fort, unable to withstand further attacks, decided to withdraw. The most popular of the pro-Commune newspapers was Le Cri du Peuple, published by Jules Valles, which was published from 22 February until 23 May. Later in October, General Louis Jules Trochu launched a series of armed attacks to break the German siege, with heavy losses and no success. The International had considerable influence even among unaffiliated French workers, particularly in Paris and the large cities. ", Between 1878 and 1880, a French historian and member of the Académie française, Maxime Du Camp, wrote Les Convulsions de Paris. "Yes" votes totalled 557,996, while 62,638 voted "no". Les effectifs des 266 bataillons de Garde nationale sédentaire atteindront jusqu'à 300 000 hommes hâtivement armés, parisiens (bourgeois et ouvriers) sans discipline, et élisant leurs propres officiers. Finally, on the extreme left, there were the radical republicans and socialists, a group that included Louis Blanc, Léon Gambetta and Georges Clemenceau. LOUISE MICHEL Les grands personnages de la commune : JULES VALLES GUSTAVE COURBET L'hôtel de ville avant ... La commune de Paris entre 1870-1871 ... et … Gustave Cluseret, the commander of the National Guard until his dismissal on 1 May, had tried to impose more discipline in the army, disbanding many unreliable units and making soldiers live in barracks instead of at home. The pedestal was draped with red flags, and pieces of the statue were taken to be melted down and made into coins. The only communication with the outside world was by balloon, carrier pigeon, or letters packed in iron balls floated down the Seine. The atmosphere was tense, and in the middle of the afternoon, gunfire broke out between the two sides; each side blamed the other for firing first. Barricades had not been prepared in advance; some nine hundred barricades were built hurriedly out of paving stones and sacks of earth.  Furthermore, besides public buildings, the National Guard also started fires at the homes of a number of residents associated with the regime of Napoleon III, such as that of the historian and playwright Prosper Merimee, the author of Carmen. Lors d'une séance de nuit de l'Assemblée, Jules Favre présente une motion prononçant la déchéance de Napoléon III. An army engineer crossed the moat and inspected the empty fortifications, and immediately telegraphed the news to Marshal MacMahon, who was with Thiers at Fort Mont-Valérien. Only about 40,000 were employed in factories and large enterprises; most were employed in small industries in textiles, furniture and construction. Émile Zola wrote, "Thus we citizens of Paris are placed between two terrible laws; the law of suspects brought back by the Commune and the law on rapid executions which will certainly be approved by the Assembly. , Amid the news of the growing number of executions carried out by the army in different parts of the city, the Communards carried out their own executions as a desperate and futile attempt at retaliation. Though their numbers were small, the Blanquists provided many of the most disciplined soldiers and several of the senior leaders of the Commune. It occurred in the wake of France’s defeat in the Franco-German War and the collapse of Napoleon III’s Second Empire (1852–70). Le siège de Paris est un épisode de la guerre franco-allemande de 1870. The hostages were shot from all directions, then beaten with rifle butts and stabbed with bayonets. The prisoners gave their identity, sentence was pronounced by a court of two or three gendarme officers, the prisoners were taken out and sentences immediately carried out. 3-4 September 1870: Capture and abdication of Napoléon III in Sedan - Proclamation of the Third Republic in Paris. In theory, the churches were allowed to continue their religious activity only if they kept their doors open for public political meetings during the evenings. Carte de rationnement ayant appartenu au général Adolphe Victor de Chanal (verso). Communists, left-wing socialists, anarchists, and others have seen the Commune as a model for, or a prefiguration of, a liberated society, with a political system based on participatory democracy from the grassroots up. A plaque also marks the wall in Père Lachaise Cemetery where 147 Communards were executed, commonly known as the Communards' Wall. Delescluze offered Wroblewski the command of the Commune forces, which he declined, saying that he preferred to fight as a private soldier. They were led by Adolphe Thiers, who was elected in 26 departments, the most of any candidate. , Late on 18 March, when they learned that the regular army was leaving Paris, units of the National Guard moved quickly to take control of the city. A female battalion from the National Guard defended the Place Blanche during the repression. The Paris Commune (French: Commune de Paris, pronounced [kɔmyn də paʁi]) was a radical socialist, disestablishmentarian, and revolutionary government that ruled Paris after the collapse of the Second French Empire. , By the end of 24 May, the regular army had cleared most of the Latin Quarter barricades, and held three-fifths of Paris. A separate and more formal trial was held beginning 7 August for the Commune leaders who survived and had been captured, including Théophile Ferré, who had signed the death warrant for the hostages, and the painter Gustave Courbet, who had proposed the destruction of the column in Place Vendôme. The garrison of one barricade, at Chaussee Clignancourt, was defended in part by a battalion of about thirty women, including Louise Michel, the celebrated "Red Virgin of Montmartre", who had already participated in many battles outside the city.
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